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Tuberculosis of Lung

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that causes the second largest health problem in the world after HIV.

This disease most commonly affects the lungs, with the main symptom being a cough with phlegm that lasts for more than 21 days. Cough is also sometimes accompanied by blood.

There are two conditions of Tuberculosis, namely latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis. Apart from having no symptoms, latent tuberculosis is also not contagious. Meanwhile, Tuberculosis, which immediately triggers symptoms because the bacteria that cause it cannot be killed by the immune system, is known as active tuberculosis.

The following are some groups of people who have a higher risk of contracting Tuberculosis, namely:
  1. People with a decreased immune system, for example, people with HIV / AIDS, diabetes, or people who are undergoing chemotherapy.
  2. People who are malnourished or malnourished.
  3. Drug addicts.
  4. Smokers.
  5. Medical officers who often come into contact with people with Tuberculosis.
Prevention
The main step in TB prevention is to receive the BCG vaccine (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin). This vaccine is included in the mandatory immunization list and is given before the baby is three months old. The BCG vaccine is also recommended for children, adolescents, and adults who have never received it as a baby. But keep in mind that this vaccine will be less effective in adults.

You should also not be in the same room with someone with tuberculosis for a long time unless he or she has been on treatment for more than 2 weeks. If it can't be avoided, then use a mask to protect yourself from contracting this disease.

Symptoms
In addition to the main symptom of a cough with phlegm that lasts more than 21 days, Tuberculosis also has other symptoms, including:
  1. Cough that bleeds.
  2. Chest pain when breathing or coughing.
  3. No appetite.
  4. Weight loss.
  5. Fever and chills.
  6. Excessive sweating at night.
However, not all tuberculosis bacteria that enter the body directly cause active infection or active tuberculosis. In some cases, the Tuberculosis bacteria hide without causing any symptoms. Thіѕ condition іѕ knоwn аѕ lаtеnt tubеrсulоѕіѕ.

Cause
The cause of tuberculosis is bacteria that are spread in the air through saliva from coughing or sneezing with tuberculosis. The name of the tuberculosis bacteria is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When tuberculosis bacteria enter the body, the bacteria can be inactive for some time, until one day they become active and cause various symptoms.

Diagnosis
Tuberculosis is a disease that is difficult to detect, especially in children. Doctors usually use several ways to diagnose this disease, including:
  1. History or ask about your medical history.
  2. Chest X-ray. If you have tuberculosis, the test results will show changes in your lungs.
  3. Mantoux test. This test is usually used to test for latent tuberculosis by injecting the skin layer and then monitoring the skin reaction within 2-3 days. The size of the swelling in the area of ​​the injection skin will indicate whether you have tuberculosis or not.
  4. Blood test. This test can be done to check the immune system's reaction to tuberculosis bacilli.
Sputum test. In addition to checking for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, this test can also be used to test whether the bacteria are resistant to certain antibiotics.

Handling
Active tuberculosis must be treated immediately. Because if left untreated, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria can spread and attack other organs of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, and liver. This disease that is classified as serious can be cured if treated properly. The necessary treatment step is to consume several types of antibiotics that must be taken for a certain period of time.

The tuberculosis healing period varies for each patient, depending on the health condition and the severity of the disease being experienced. After taking antibiotics for 2 weeks, the sufferer's condition usually begins to improve. Tuberculosis experienced will not be transmitted to other people anymore. However, in order to be fully recovered, the patient must continue to take medication for 6 months.

This treatment must be obeyed by the sufferer. Because if the drug is not consumed according to a doctor's prescription or is stopped, the bacteria can remain. In fact, the infection may be resistant to antibiotics.