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Malaria

Malaria is a dіѕеаѕе саuѕеd bу thе Plasmodium раrаѕіtе. Symptoms will appear if you are bitten by a mosquito that has been infected by the parasite. The incubation period, which is the time between the mosquito bite and the onset of symptoms, depends on the type of parasite infecting. The incubation period for the Plasmodium falciparum parasite is about 1-2 weeks. As for Plasmodium vivax, it is around 2-3 weeks.

Malaria infection occurs with just 1 mosquito bite and can be deadly if not treated properly. However, malaria is rarely transmitted directly from one person to another. An example of the condition of transmission of this disease is if there is contact with the blood of a malaria patient. The fetus can also become infected with malaria through the mother's blood.

Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum needs more attention. The reason is, this parasite is the most dangerous cause of malaria and causes complications. Dehydration, severe anemia, and organ failure are some of the complications that can occur if early treatment is not done. In Indonesia, there are around 400,000 positive cases of malaria each year. Of all these cases, 4,000 sufferers experienced complications, even leading to death

Prevention
Malaria in general can be avoided. In areas where malaria is often endemic, avoiding mosquito bites is the main preventive way to prevent contracting malaria. You can also use a mosquito net to cover the bed, remove standing water, use insect repellent, and use long clothes or blankets to cover the skin.

Symptoms
Malaria symptoms usually appear between 1-2 weeks after the body is infected. In some cases, symptoms can appear a year after being bitten by a mosquito. Early symptoms that are often experienced by malaria sufferers are:
  1. Fluctuating body temperature.
  2. Headache.
  3. Cold sweats.
  4. Nausea and vomiting.
  5. Muscle ache.
  6. Diarrhea.
Cause
Plasmodium is a type of раrаѕіtе thаt causes mаlаrіа. There are many types of Plasmodium parasites, but only 5 types cause malaria in humans. Thе Plаѕmоdіum parasite is оnlу spread bу fеmаlе Anopheles mоѕԛuіtоеѕ. Mosquito bites occur more frequently at night. After being bitten by a mosquito, the parasites will enter the bloodstream. Thе ѕрrеаd of malaria can аlѕо occur through blооd transfusions. In addition, alternating needles can also transmit this problem.

Diagnosis
If symptoms suspect malaria, consult a doctor immediately so that diagnosis and treatment can be done as soon as possible. The doctor will perform the Ravid Diagnosis Test (RDT). In this test, a sample of the patient's blood is drawn. This serves to determine the presence and types of parasites that cause malaria in patients. RDT results will generally come out after 15-20 minutes.

There is also a more conventional way to diagnose malaria, namely by using microscopy. The doctor will take a sample of the patient's blood, then observe it using a microscope. Apart from knowing the presence and type of parasites that cause malaria, the test will also determine the proportion of red blood cells infected.

Blood tests can also be done to check if the patient has anemia, which is a complication caused by malaria. Later, the test results will help the doctor determine the most suitable combination of antimalarial drugs for the patient.

Handling
Even though it rarely happens, you still have to be careful about malaria. Because malaria has the potential to make the body's resistance decrease drastically in a short time. Complete recovery can be done if this problem is treated and treated appropriately. Types of antimalarial drugs are used to prevent and treat malaria. The drugs given depend on several things, including the severity of the symptoms experienced, where the patient is exposed to malaria, and whether he has previously used antimalarial drugs.

If malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, WHO recommends Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for at least 3 days, namely:
  1. Combination of artemether and lumefantrine.
  2. A combination of artesunate and amodiaquine.
  3. A combination of artesunate and mefloquine.
  4. Combination of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine.
  5. Artesunate + sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine combination.
For malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, it is recommended that patients be treated using the chloroquine group in areas that are not yet resistant to chloroquine. Meanwhile, in areas that have been resistant, ACT is recommended.
Especially for patients who are pregnant, malaria treatment will be different. The reason is, this disease has a worse impact if it attacks pregnant women, babies, young children, and people who are old.